Import, Beli, Jual & Ternak Kambing Boer ; Reka & Bina Kandang


Preparation of goat bucks for mating

When one is preparing goat bucks for mating the following aspects must be considered.

1) Physiology of sperm production.

2) Nutrition.

3) Season.

4) Age of Bucks.

5) Fertility.

6) Mating Dexterity.

7) Female to male ratio.

8) Mating Systems.

9) Disease:

(a) Direct damage to the reproductive organs.

(b) Systemic disease indirectly causing infertility.

10) Pheromones.

Bucks with characteristics similar to the buck pictured above would make a good foundation for any herd

(1) Physiology.

It is important to note that a live, mature sperm takes about two months to develop. Any situation that compromises semen production will generally render the buck infertile for two months or more. If a buck is infertile at testing, one should remember that he may fully recover his fertility, but this can take two months or longer to occur.

(2) Nutrition.

Correct nutrition is one of the most important elements of any buck preparation programme. Any change in nutrition can result in a drastic change in semen quality. Bucks must not be fed too fat or be allowed to lose so much condition that they spend all their time foraging for food and do not do the job of mating the does.

There is a tendency the world over to over feed stud animals for stock shows. This type of over feeding often leads to temporary infertility. Also, very fat bucks are lazy and will not look for does to cover and are too fat and lazy to compete with well conditioned bucks.

(3) Season.

Goats are generally seasonal breeders with most sexual activity occurring with decreasing daylight length (i.e. autumn) and a lesser mating cycle in spring. In the Tropics, seasonal breeding is less pronounced. Boer goats will breed at any time of the year, but they also follow seasonal trends. Most kids are born in spring with the highest occurrence of multiple births also being in spring from the autumn mating.

It is very important to make sure that the bucks are sexually active and are calling and urinating all over themselves before they are presented to the does. If one thinks that they are inactive or slow, it is advisable to put a few old does that have been treated with oestrogens into the buck flock. This will even stimulate sexual activity in the bucks out of season. The sexually active bucks will then stimulate the doe flock to become sexually active.

(4) Age of Bucks.

It is desirable to use bucks of the same age in a mating system. It has happened that an older, dominant buck has been infertile in a flock and has fought off the younger bucks with disastrous results at kidding time.

In any mating system, the dominant bucks will mate most of the does. It is important to make sure that the bucks being used are big enough to mate the does they are with. One group of young bucks was observed to masturbate against the perineum of the females that were too tall and then collapse in a dazed heap after ejaculating in the air. The antics were hilarious to watch, but highly unproductive.

(5) Fertility.

It is very important to test bucks for genital soundness before mating commences particularly in single sire mating systems. It is much cheaper to make sure that a buck is genitally sound than it is to lose a crop of

kids. This procedure should be undertaken by a veterinarian who is properly skilled in this field.

(6) Mating dexterity and libido.

Bucks may be genitally sound, but may have no idea on how to copulate successfully. Most bucks learn very quickly what is required. It is important to note that they are mating correctly.

Another very important aspect is libido. A fit, healthy buck should be prepared to mate five to six times in an hour when does are first presented to him. This will decline over time. When does are presented to bucks, most of the females should be mated within the first three weeks of the breeding period. Bucks must have good libido and mating dexterity to achieve the desired results.

(7) Female to male ratio.

When preparing for the breeding season, it is important to know how many females each buck is expected to breed. One cannot expect a young, inexperienced buck to breed fifty females in six weeks (expect him to breed 25 – 35 does over this period).

The bigger the paddock and the more extensive a paddock is, the higher the buck to doe ratio must be to ensure that the animals find each other when the female is in oestrus.

(8) Mating Systems.

(a) Single Sire Mating.

It is essential to ensure that the buck is fertile, healthy, and sound and can mate properly if this system is employed. It is a good practice to change bucks half way through the breeding period to ensure that all the females are properly bred. This also minimizes the risk if a buck becomes infertile during the breeding period.

The advantage of this system is that the buck need not fight other bucks to mate does which saves his energy for mating. This also minimizes the risk of injury to the bucks.

(b) Multiple Sire mating.

In this system, it is desirable to use bucks of similar size and age. This decreases the risk of fighting injuries. The advantages are that fewer paddocks are required during breeding and bucks that get sick or injured are replaced by others in the flock.

(c) Artificial Insemination.

This is useful where one wants to breed a large number of females to one sire in a very short period. Make sure that the operator employed is experienced in dealing with goat artificial insemination.

(9) Disease.

This can be divided into two entities:-

(a) Direct damage to the reproductive organs.

(b) Systemic disease which may result in infertility.

(a) Direct Damage:

(i) Physical abnormalities present since birth e.g. short penis, cryptorchidisim.

(ii) Physical damage to the penis and testes e.g. while fighting, jumping over barbed wire fences etc.

(iii) Abcesses on the testes or prepuce. Most abcesses are caused by tick bites or puncture wounds which become infected by Corynebacterium (Cheesy gland). Abcesses cause infertility by occluding the preputial opening so that the penis cannot come out. Abcesses within the scrotum may interfere with the testicular blood supply which in turn affects the temperature regulating mechanism of the testes resulting in infertility which may be temporary or permanent.

(iv) Epididymitis from infections causes: e.g. Brucella ovis, Actinabacillus seminis. This is often transmitted during the breeding season and can result in very poor conception rates. More importantly, the damage these diseases cause to the ram flock as a whole can be devastating with resultant poor conception rates and high culling rate of rams.

(v) Orchitis – a severely inflamed testicle can result in permanent or temporary infertility.

(b) Systemic Disease resulting in Infertility.

(i) It is important to remember that any disease which causes a high fever can affect the temperature of the testes and this can cause temporary infertility which may last for two to three months. It is therefore important to know that the bucks are fertile and producing good semen at the beginning of the mating season.

(ii) Debilitating diseases (e.g. Johnes, internal abcesses etc.) can also result in the bucks losing condition, feeling poorly and not being capable of breeding despite the fact that they are genitally sound. Note: Most of the problems associated with diseases can be eliminated with a good physical examination conducted by an experienced veterinarian.

(10) Pheromones.

The Pheromones play an extremely important role in stimulating female goats into sexual activity. It is very desirable that the bucks are sexually active and “stink to high heaven” when they are introduced to the female flock.

It is good practice to introduce vesectomized teaser bucks to a flock of does two weeks before the entire bucks to stimulate the female sexual activity. Females that are not stimulated by smelly, sexually active bucks may not cycle well even if it is the normal breeding season.

Jean van Niekerk

Murray River Genetics, “Fairfield”,

Thyra Road, Moama NSW 2710

Phone: 03-58895123

Fax: 03-58895115

Mob: 0428569915


Boer Goat - CrossBreeding Guide

Guide to cross bred percentages.
What does F1, F2 etc mean?

F1 = ½ or 50% (50% Boer genetics and 50% *Rangeland)

F2 = ¾ or 75%
F3 = 7/8 or 87.5%
F4 = 15/16 or 93.75%
F5 = 31/32 or 96.88%
F6 = 63/64 or 98.84%
F7 = 127/128 or 99.22%
F8 = 255/256 or 99.61%
F9 = 511/512 or 99.80%
F10 = 1023/1024 or 99.90%
F11 = 2047/2048 or 99.95%

*also known as Feral (wild goats)

Reference to

2.1 Boer Fullblood (FB)
- adalah kambing boer keturunan asal dari Africa yang tidak dicampur dengan manamana baka kambing lain. Kambing ini mempunyai ciri Boer yang sebenar, iaitu cepat membesar dan membiak. Kat Malaysia harga untuk jenis ini paling kurang RM2,000 seekor.

2.2 Boer F1 - adalah anak kambing yang lahir hasil dari perkahwinan antara Boer Fullblood (FB) dengan kambing jenis lain.

2.3 Boer F2 - adalah anak kambing yang lahir hasil dari perkahwinan antara Boer Fullblood (FB) dengan Boer F1

2.4 Boer F3 - adalah anak kambing yang lahir hasil dari perkahwinan antara Boer Fullblood (FB) dengan Boer F2

2.5 Boer F4 - adalah anak kambing yang lahir hasil dari perkahwinan antara Boer Fullblood (FB) dengan Boer F3

2.6 Purebreed - adalah gelaran bagi F4 (bagi betina) dan F4 keatas bagi jantan.

MAHA 2008

Official Website :

Soft Lauch


MAHA 2008 will be held at Malaysia Agro-Exposition Park, Serdang (MAEPS, Serdang) which is strategically located in the heart of Putrajaya, with easy access to: -

Kuala Lumpur International Airport (20 minutes)
Kuala Lumpur (20 minutes)
Putrajaya (10 minutes)

Location Map


Agriculture is Business

Following the success of MAHA 2006, Malaysia is once again set to host the region's largest exhibition showcasing the latest Technologies and Innovations in the Agriculture, Agro-Based, Horticulture and Agrotourism Industry - Malaysian Agriculture, Horticulture and Agrotourism Exhibition 2008 (MAHA 2008). Hosted by the Ministry of Agriculture and Agro-Based Industry and organised by Federal Agricultural Marketing Authority (FAMA), MAHA 2008 is expected to be the biggest event of the year serving the Agro-Based Industry. Being awarded by The Malaysian Book of Records as the Largest Exhibition in Malaysia, MAHA 2008 is undoubtedly the largest industry gathering in the South East Asia region. MAHA 2008 is regarded as a 'must attend' for the industry to be updated with the latest innovations and solutions and to do business. Over 950 local and international exhibitors are expected to showcase their latest solutions to the industry.

In line with the Government's effort to redevelop and reposition the agricultural industry as one of the main engines of growth, this event, aptly theme “Agriculture Is Business”, will serve as the perfect opportunity for interested investors to gather the latest information and meet face to face with industry captains.

This is no doubt your best marketing platform to reach out to key decision makers, investors and buyers in the region. Contact us today at +60 3 7957 3999 to make your booking enquiries or fax us at +60 3 7956 2333. Alternatively, email us at:


To transform Malaysia as the centre of agricultural development excellence and agricultural based industry. This is to attract both domestic and foreign private investment participation in the agricultural sector of Malaysia.

To promote the Agriculture industry as a profitable investment that has guaranteed returns in the future to attract investors, entrepreneurs and the younger generations.

To exhibit the latest innovation and technology available in the international market with the hope that it could be applied in the agricultural sector in Malaysia. With this, the country's agricultural sector can be enhanced to the level which is commercially more viable. Thus, the standard of living and income of the target group could also be increased.

To provide an opportunity to the Ministries/ Departments/ Government Agencies/ State Governments, local and foreign private companies, entrepreneurs and other target groups to exhibit their products, latest inventions, investment opportunities and services offered.

A platform of meeting for the seller and the buyer, technology inventor and the agricultural sector service supplier, both locally and internationally.

MAHA 2008

Trade Fair

MAHA 2008
Malaysia Agriculture, Horticulture and Agrotourism Show 2008

Sub-Heading Agriculture Is Business
Date Of The Event 11th - 23th August, 2008
Hosted By Ministry of Agriculture and Agro-Based Industry
Organised By Federal Agricultural Marketing Authority (FAMA)
Event Frequency Biannually

Guest of Honour YAB Dato’ Seri Abdullah Ahmad Badawi, Prime Minister of Malaysia


Malaysia Agro-Exposition Park , Serdang (MAEPS)
Strategically located in the heart of Putrajaya, with easy access to:

Kuala Lumpur International Airport (25 minutes)
Kuala Lumpur (20 minutes)
Putrajaya (10 minutes)

Opening Hours 10:00 – 19:00 (Open Daily for Trade & Public)

Cost Of Participation
Shell Scheme: RM 3,852.00 per booth @

RM 428.00 / sqm

Shell Scheme package:-

2500 mm partition complete with white laminated panel aluminium frame
300 mm fascia board (company name)
Needle punch carpeting (9 sqm)
1 no. of reception table
2 nos. of folding chair
2 nos. of 40W fluorescent light
1 no. of 13 Amp/230V power point

Bare Space: RM 328.00 / sqm
(Minimum take-up space: 18 sqm)

Total Hall Occupancy 660 booths (3m x 3m/booth)
Construction and dismantling periods
Build up:

August, 2008


August, 2008

Exhibitors Profile

Agro-Based Products, Beverages, Biotechnology, Cereal Products, Cheese, Chilled and Frozen Food, Colouring Products, Concentrates, Condiments, Convenience Food, Dehydrated Food, Delicatessen Products, Dietic Food, Environmental Friendly Products, Financing Services, Fish, Ornamental Fish, Floral Gifts, Floral, Food Ingredients, Food with Functional Claims, Franchise Development, Fresh Produce, Processed Food, Packaging, Fruits, Fruits Products, Handicraft, Herbal Pharmaceuticals, Information and Communication Technology, Livestocks, Machinery and Equipment, Oil & Oil Products, Patent & Trademark, Processed Food, Prepared Food, Preserved Food, Research and Development, Rice & Rice Products, Soya Products, Spices, Traditional Medicines, Vegetables.

This list serves as a guide only. For further information, kindly contact the Event Manager

Visitors Profile
Ministries/ Departments/ Government Agencies, State Governments, Small and Medium Industry Entrepreneur, Federation of Malaysian Manufacturers, Private Companies, Advertising Agencies, Financial Institutions, Research & Development Institutes, Public & Private Institutes, Public & Private Universities, Business Council, Foreign Trade Commissioners, Local & Foreign Chamber of Commerce, International Halal Standard Authority Council, Intellectual Property Corporation of Malaysia (MYIPO), Legal Firm, Franchisor, Retail Outlets.

Entrance Fee To be advised

Figures For The 2006 Event


586 exhibiting companies from 12 countries

Gross exhibition space

23,000 sqm

Visitors 498,000 trade & public visitors

MAHA 2008

Total Exhibition Space

20 acres (Inclusive of Livestock Display Area)

Estimated Visitors >500,000 trade & public visitors

Project Management

MAHA 2008 Project Office
Prima Bumi Avenue Sdn Bhd
C-22-06, 32 Square, 2 Jalan 19/1,
46300 Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia



+60 (3) 7957 3999
Fax : +60 (3) 7956 2333

Caring For Australia Livestock Exports

Australia - World Leaders in Livestock Export

Australia is recognized as the world leaders in the export of livestock. This is due to a national inquiry initiated in 2003 (the Keniry Report) which made the following eight recommendations, all of which were implemented by the end of 2004:

  1. Veterinarians to be on ships for all long haul voyages (for example, to the Middle East).
  2. The development of new national animal welfare regulations, requirements and standards.
  3. Increased government involvement in regulatory control (including unannounced audits and inspections).
  4. The introduction of an individual consignment risk management approach for all shipments which will ensure that all potential risks affecting animal care are minimised.
  5. Upgrade of assembly depots.
  6. Progress on the establishment of formal agreements with the importing country.
  7. Governments in the Middle Eastern/North Africa region to supervise the discharge of all consignments.
  8. A further A$1 million a year investment in improving animal welfare outcomes in the Middle East.

Get the facts: Caring for exports

Caring for animals is the number one priority for everyone in the livestock export industry; from farmers and transport operators to feedlot managers, stockmen, vets and exporters.

Farmers are committed to the wellbeing of their animals. They take pride in the quality of their animals, knowing that well cared for livestock are the most productive animals.

Australian farmers are interested in the welfare of their animals beyond the farm gate. They support the livestock export industry because they know it must comply with high standards of care.

Exporters make animal care their first priority. This is not only for ethical reasons but also to ensure they maintain the confidence of their customers.

They must satisfy their customers about the quality of the animals that are shipped and their wellbeing on arrival. If exporters fail to meet these strict requirements, they will lose money and contracts.

The public can be confident that exports are carried out humanely and safely. Everyone involved in the livestock export industry understands that there is a level of concern in Australia and other countries about the livestock export trade. The industry’s survival depends on the community and government having confidence that the trade is conducted with the highest standards of animal care.

These care standards are reflected in law. Strict regulations have been established with input from the industry, animal welfare bodies and government departments.

We lead the world with our standards of animal care in livestock export. The Australian industry has many years’ experience in the shipping of livestock. Recent research found we lead the world with our standards of animal care during export.

An independent report, published by Alliance Resource Economics in March 2006 and titled “World Livestock Export Standards”, found:

“Australia has world-best livestock export standards in terms of coverage and capacity to deliver acceptable outcomes.”

Strict industry standards have successfully improved livestock export. In 2006, 4.15 million sheep, 25,353 goats and 618,645 cattle were exported from Australia.

The 2006 success rates in export deliveries were 99.1% for sheep, 99.82% for cattle and 99.51% for goats. These figures demonstrate a significant improving trend over the last ten years.

We care: Animal care

Animal care is the first priority for everyone involved in the Australian livestock export industry.

During the voyage

All livestock export ships comply with the following strict standards:

  • Feed and water are constantly available to the animals during the voyage. Volumes are stipulated and checked prior to departure.
  • Animals have space to walk around and lie down in their pens.
  • To ensure fresh air, ventilation systems provide each deck of the ship with a full air change at least every two minutes.
  • Highly trained, accredited Australian stockmen support the crew by providing care to animals throughout the voyage.
  • A veterinary kit ensures adequate supplies of veterinary treatments if required.
  • Animals that become sick are isolated and cared for in special 'hospital' pens.

On arrival

When the ship docks, quarantine vets inspect all animals for illness and must sign-off on their health before they are unloaded.

The animals then spend a short time in a feedlot, where they are well fed and closely monitored to ensure they are in top condition before going to market.

The livestock export industry is investing both money and human resources into improving the way Australian animals are handled and processed in overseas markets.

This includes investing heavily in training the staff of local abattoirs and feedlots in the proper handling of our animals. In the Middle East this training is carried out by a dedicated team of animal welfare specialists based permanently in the region.

To date this team has improved facilities across the Middle East and worked with importers, feedlot managers and stockmen to help them better understand how to work with Australian animals. This is part of a wider program involving liaison with Middle Eastern governments to ensure there are suitable standards and processes in place for how Australian animals are treated upon arrival in the region, as well as investment in new equipment and the upgrading of facilities.

FullBlood Boer Goat Registration Standard

Breed Standards of the Boer Goat

The following are the breed standards as drawn up and accepted by the Boer Breeders Association of South Africa. The aim of the breeding standards are to improve the race and to increase the economy value.


HEAD: A strong head with large soft brown eyes and without an untamed look. A strong slightly curved nose, wide nostrils, strong well-formed mouth with will-fitted jaws. Up to two tooth must show a 100% fit. Four tooth olds and older may show 6 mm protrusion. Permanent teeth must cut in the correct anatomical place. The forehead must be prominently curved linking up with the curve of the nose and horns. Horns should be strong, of moderate length and placed moderately apart with a gradual backward curve. Horns have to be as round and solid as possible and coloured darkly. Ears are to be broad, smooth and of medium length hanging downwards from the head. Too short ears are undesirable.

Characteristic cull defects: Concave forehead, horns too straight or too flat, pointed jaw, ears folded (lengthwise), stiff protruding ears, too short ears, too long lower jaws, short bottom jaw and blue eyes.

NECK AND FOREQUARTERS: A neck of moderate length in proportion to the length of the body, full and well fleshed and well-joined with the forequarter is essential. The breastbone should be broad with a deep and broad brisket. The shoulder should be fleshy, in proportion to the body and be well-fitted to the withers. The withers should be as broad and as well-filled as possible (not sharp). The front legs should be of medium length and in proportion to the depth of the body. The legs should be strong and well placed, with strong pastern joints and well-formed hoofs which are as dark as possible.

Characteristic cull defects: Too long, thin neck, too short neck, shoulders too loose.

BARREL: The ideal is a long, deep broad barrel. The ribs must be well sprung and fleshed, and the loins as well fitted as possible. The goat should have a broad, fairly straight back and must not be pinched behind the shoulders.

Characteristic cull defects: Back too concave, too slab sided, too cylindrical or pinched behind the shoulder.

HINDQUARTERS: The Boer Goat should have a broad and long rump, not sloping too much, well fleshed buttocks which are not too flat, and have fully fleshed thighs. The tail must be straight where it grows out of the dock and then swing to either side.

Characteristic cull defects: A rump that hangs too much or is too short. A too long shank or flat buttocks.

LEGS: Emphasis should be placed on the legs which should be strong (of good texture) and well placed. Too fleshy legs are undesirable. Strong legs imply hardiness and a strong constitution, which are absolutely essential characteristics of the Boer Goat.

Characteristic cull defects: Knock knees, bandy legs, "koeisekel of regophak." Legs too thin or too fleshy. Weak pasterns and hoofs pointing outwards or inwards.

SKIN AND COVERINGS: A loose supple skin with sufficient chest and neck folds, especially in the case of rams, is essential. Eyelids and hairless parts must be pigmented. The hairless skin under the tail should have 75% pigmentation for stud purposes with 100% pigmentation the ideal. Short, glossy hair is desireable. A limited amount of fur will be tolerated during winter months.

Characteristic cull defects: Covering too long and coarse or too furry.

SEXUAL ORGANS: Ewes: Well-formed udder firmly attached with no more than two functional teats on a side. Permissible defects: a) If there is no indication that the teat is separating, but there are two milk openings, this is acceptable. b) Double teats: the front 50% should be split. Rams: Two reasonably large, well formed, healthy and equal sized testes in one scrotum. A scrotum with no larger spit than 5 cm is permissible. The scrotum must be at least 25 cm in circumference.

Characteristic cull defects: Bunched, calabash or double teats. Too small testes; a scrotum with more than a 5 cm split.

QUALITY: This is achieved with short glossy hair and a fine lustre.

SIZE: The ideal is an average sized, heavy goat with maximum meat production. A desireable relationship between length of leg and depth of body should be achieved at all ages. Lambs should tend to be longer in the leg.

Characteristic cull defects: Goats too large or too small (pony).

COLOURING: The ideal is a white goat with a red head and ears, and fully pigmented. The blaze must be evident. Shadings between light red and dark red are permissible. The minimum requirement for a stud animal is a patch of at least 10 cm in diameter on both sides of the head, ears excluded. Both ears should have at least 75% red colouring and the same percentage pigmentation.

The following is permissible for stud purposes:

HEAD, NECK AND FORE-QUARTERS: A total red colouring is permissible not further than the shoulder blade and on the shoulder it must exist not lower than level with the chest junction.

BARREL, HINDQUARTER AND BELLY: Only one patch not exceeding 10 cm in diameter is permissible.

LEGS: The term "legs" is taken to mean that portion below an imaginary line formed by the chest and the underline. Patches with maximum of 5 cm in diameter are permissible.

TAIL: The tail must be red, but the red colour may not continue onto the body for more than 2.5 cm.

RED HAIR AND COVERING: Very few red hairs are permissible at the 2-tooth stage.

PIGMENTATION: Discriminate against too light pigmentation.

FLOCK GOAT: A flock goat is a Boer goat which does not comply with the stud standards, but has no cull faults. At least 50% of the colour must be white; the other 50% must be red. Under the tail the flock goat must be at least 25% pigmented Rams may not be more than 25% red.

EXPLANATION OF BREED STANDARDS: In applying standards, there are many aspects which cannot be fully defined. In such cases the inspector or judge must use his discretion. In spite of the breed standards being clear and to the point, it is nevertheless necessary to supply additional information in respect of certain descriptions. The major part of the body of the goat must be white to make it conspicuous and to facilitate the rounding up of goats in dense terrain. A pigmented skin on the hairless parts, e.g. under the tail, round the eyelids and mouth, etc., is absolutely essential, because it offers resistance to sunburn which may result in cancer. A pigmented skin is also more resistant to skin disease. A loose, supple skin is essential for adaptability to climatic conditions. In South Africa, which is a warm and sunny country, an animal with a loose skin and short hair is better adapted. In addition a skin of this kind provides additional resistance to external parasites.

GENERAL APPEARANCE AND TYPE: In appearance it is a goat with a fine head, round horns bent backwards, a loose, supple and pleated skin (especially in rams) with different body parts well fleshed and in perfect balance. The ewe must be feminine, wedging slightly to the front, which is a sign of fertility. The ram, nevertheless, appears heavier in the head, neck and forequarters. The upgraded boer goat is an animal with symmetry, with a strong, vigorous appearance and enough quality. In the ewe there is strong emphasis on femininity; in the ram one of masculinity.

FERTILITY: a) Shows: An ewe must have lambed at 6 tooth age already or must visibly be with young or she will be culled. b) Auctions: 6 tooth or older ewes must visibly be with young or be certified in writing as pregnant by a veterinary surgeon or the ewe will be culled. Certificate to be handed in during inspection.